Monday, 29 February 2016

The Portrait Busts and Statue of Isaac Newton

 

Some fairly random notes and illustrations of the portraits and busts of Isaac Newton.
I will edit and repost this information on my main blog.
see -

I am currently using this blog as an aide memoire and somewhere to file information.
 
Picture
 
Sir Isaac Newton
by Sir James Thornhill
102 x 122 cms.
c. 1710.
Trinity College, Cambridge
 
 
 
 
 
Newton by Thornhill
127 x 101.2 cms
In the Study Woolsthorpe Manor Lincs.
c1709 /12
National Trust
 
Mezzotint of Isaac Newton
by and published by John Simon, after Sir James Thornhill
mezzotint, circa 1700-1725.
13 7/8 in. x 9 7/8 in. (352 mm x 252 mm) paper size
 
The David Le Marchand Ivory Busts of Isaac Newton.
 
 
David Le Marchand, by Joseph Highmore, circa 1723 - NPG 6142 - © National Portrait Gallery, London
 
David le Marchand (1674 - 1726).
This is not a firm attribution.
by Joseph Highmore (1692 - 1780).
Oil on canvas, circa 1723.
48 3/4 in. x 39 1/4 in. (1240 mm x 997 mm)
Purchased, 1991
NPG 6142
© National Portrait Gallery, London

David Le Marchand was born in Dieppe. His family had produced painters, and probably also ivory carvers as the port was known for this craft. A Protestant, he appears to have left France after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 and is first recorded in Edinburgh in 1696. In that year he was given permission to open a shop there and his earliest portrait, of a member of the Cromartie family, was carved in the same year. By 1706 he was certainly in London, where he carved portraits of Queen Anne and George I, members of the Whig aristocracy, wealthy Huguenots and leading intellectuals of the early years of the eighteenth century. Although clearly successful until a few years before his death, he died in poverty six weeks after entering the French Hospital, London, at the expense of the charity.
Text British Museum Website
 



 
 
Sir Isaac Newton
 
1. Ivory bust of Isaac Newton.
by David le Marchand
Signed and dated on the small marble pedestal D.L.M. Sct. 1714.
186 mm.
Provenance Lord Halifax (Sold Cocks, Covent Garden 1739)
2nd Earl of Oxford (1689 - 1741),Wimpole Hall Cambridge.
James West (Sale Langfords London 6 March 1773 lot 19
Countess of Gosford 1930's bought from dealers Alfred Spero
Presented to the Gallery in 1939.
 
George Vertue in his notebooks describes a bust with the same date in the sale of the pictures of Lord Halifax.
 
National Gallery of Victoria, Australia.

 
 
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Ivory portrait bust of Sir Isaac Newton FRS (1642-1727) carved by David Le Marchand (1674-1726), full face, wearing a robe over an open shirt with two buttons at the collar.
 
2. The Raper Ivory Bust of Isaac Newton
David le Marchand
Signed and dated -
ISAACUS NEWTON/EQ:AVRA/ An:1718:/le Marchand/Sc. ad vi.
Height 248 x width 151 x depth x 140 mm.
Given to the Museum by Matthew Raper III, FRS 
 
British Museum.
 
The Rysbrack Conduitt Bust of Newton and its versions are derived from this bust
 
Originally paired with a bust of John Locke (below).
 
 
 The bust was carved from life from a single elephant tusk in 1718, and is one of Le Marchand's most striking and famous works. The ivory, taken from the broader lower zone of an exceptionally large tusk, is particularly pleasing in colour. The work appears to be the bust shown in a painting of the carver by Joseph Highmore dating from around 1723.(above)
 
This bust and other ivory portraits of Newton by the same artist are fully discussed by Charles Avery, who comments that it was probably commissioned by the Rapers, either by Matthew Raper, the donor's father, or by Moses, his uncle. Both men were merchants with strong connections to the Bank of England.
 
Alternatively, the Museum bust may be the one commissioned by Newton, which after his death was recorded as having cost him one hundred guineas. The entry in one of George Vertue's note books records 'a head of Sr. Isaac Newton, carvd. in Ivory, pretty large, bald head - by. Le Marchand. 1718', which Vertue evidently saw not long after it was done.
 
Text above from - British Museum Website.
 
 
 For an in depth study of le Marchand see - Charles Avery - David le Marchand, 1674-1726: 'an ingenious man for carving in ivory', pub. Lund Humphries, London, 1996.
 
For the busts of Isaac Newton see - Milo Keynes, The Iconography of Sir Isaac Newton, pub Boydell, 2005.
For the British Museum Ivory Bust of Newton and a plaster bust by Rysbrack see Aileen Dawson, Portrait Sculpture, A catalogue of the British Museum Collection c. 1675 - 1975. pub British Museum Press, 1999. 
 
For the Early le Marchand ivory portrait reliefs of the Mackenzie family of 1696, made in Edinburgh just after his arrival in Scotland see -
 
 
 
 
Ivory portrait bust of Sir Isaac Newton FRS (1642-1727) carved by David Le Marchand (1674-1726), full face, wearing a robe over an open shirt with two buttons at the collar.
 
 
 
Ivory portrait bust of Sir Isaac Newton FRS (1642-1727) carved by David Le Marchand (1674-1726), full face, wearing a robe over an open shirt with two buttons at the collar.
 
 
 
Ivory portrait bust of Sir Isaac Newton FRS (1642-1727) carved by David Le Marchand (1674-1726), full face, wearing a robe over an open shirt with two buttons at the collar, signed and dated.

 
 
Ivory portrait bust of Sir Isaac Newton FRS (1642-1727) carved by David Le Marchand (1674-1726), full face, wearing a robe over an open shirt with two buttons at the collar, signed and dated.
 
 
 
 
The lost Ivory bust of John Locke by Le Marchand,
215 mm.
The pair to Rapers bust of Newton by le Marchand.
Provenance The Raper family, Alfred Morrison, Mrs Michael Wright, 3 Barton St London SW1 (1936)
This photograph was taken when the bust was lent to the Victoria and Albert Museum for study in 1936.
 
see - Charles Avery - David le Marchand, 1674-1726: 'an ingenious man for carving in ivory', pub. Lund Humphries, London, 1996.
 
 
 
 
3. Bust of Isaac Newton
Le Marchand (possibly after) or studio of.
Bought Sotheby's lot 7 26 March 1965
19 cms
Ivory
Collection of Lord Thompson of Fleet. Toronto, Canada.
NB the lack of shirt featured in the Raper bust. 
Now Paired with the bust of Locke below.
 
 
 
Ivory bust of John Locke
now paired with the bust of Newton (above)
20 cms
Purchased from Alfred Speelman in 1953
Collection of Lord Thompson of Fleet. Toronto, Canada.
_________________________________

 
 
Isaac Newton
Lord Thompson of Fleet Collection
Art Gallery of Ontario. Toronto, Canada
 197.5 x 130 mm.
 
Provenance Dr Richard Meade (sold 11 March 1755 by A Langford in association with Samuel Baker
 
 
 
 
 
A Small relief of Isaac Newton
Cast from the ivory by le Marchand.
Babson Collection. USA.
 
 
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Meezzotint of Isaac Newton
1712.
 
J. Smith after Kneller.
_____________________________________
 
Sir Isaac Newton, by Jacobus Houbraken, after  Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt, (1702) - NPG D30979 - © National Portrait Gallery, London
 
Portrait of Sir Isaac Newton
 
Engraving Houbraken after Kneller
(370 mm x 234 mm).
 
Sir Isaac Newton, by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt, 1702 - NPG 2881 - © National Portrait Gallery, London
 
Sir Isaac Newton
by Sir Godfrey Kneller
1702.
Oil on Canvas.
756 mm x 622 mm.
Purchased 1936.
National Portrait Gallery
___________________
 
The Roubiliac Terracotta of Isaac Newton. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Marble bust by Roubiliac
Royal Society.
 
On Newton's death in 1727, his nephew, John Conduitt, allowed John Rysbrack to take casts of his face. Two of these were obtained by Roubiliac and in about 1731 Conduitt commissioned him to make this terracotta bust from them.  It was later owned by the surgeon John Belchier FRS, who at his death in 1785 left it to the Royal Society with instructions that it should be placed in the Royal Observatory at Greenwich.
In his will Belchier also stated that, as a portrait, it was 'esteemed more like than anything extant of Sir Isaac'. Some forty to fifty years later, at Greenwich, the head was broken off in an accident and, after being repaired, the whole was painted white. The result was that by the later 19th century the bust was mistaken for a low-value plaster one and it remained at the Observatory up to and throughout the Second World War, on occasions provided with a tin hat, before moving to Herstmonceux with the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO) organization in the 1950s. The original was considered 'lost' until the error was discovered in 1961, when it was stripped of paint and expertly restored by the British Museum. After the RGO later moved to Cambridge, it was lent to the Fitzwilliam Museum, mainly for safety. It returned to Greenwich and the NMM's custody on the closure of the RGO in 1998.

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Marble bust of Sir Isaac Newton
by Louis Francois Roubiliac
With the Royal Society since 1738.

__________________________________
 
 <h3>Bust of Isaac Newton by Louis-Francois Roubiliac, 18th century; courtesy of a private collection</h3><h4>Category: Sculpture</h4>
 
Another version of the Roubiliac bust of Newton
From a Lincolnshire Collection see
 
Isaac Newton
Life size marble bust.
1759.
by Louis Francois Roubiliac
Trinity College, Cambridge
 
 
 
Plaster cast Trinity College Cambridge - origins obscure
Institute of Astronomy Library
___________________________________
 
 
Silver Medallion by John Croker (1670 - 1741). dated 1726.
 
on the reverse side - FELIX . COGNOSCERE . CAVSAS.
Happy in the knowledge of causes
Diam. 51 mm.
Croker was born in Dresden, moved to England in 1691, worked at the Royal Mint from 1697 -
Croker became chief engraver at the Royal Mint in 1705.
The dress of Newton is very similar that on the le Marchand ivory bust and it possible that it was   the source, but the bust by Rysbrack although generally assumed to be later could also have provided the source for this relief. The hair above the forehead is certainly closer to the Rysbrack version but it is equally possible that it was the source for Rysbrack's bust.
 
 
The reverse side is repeated on the unusual base of Rysbrack's Conduitt bust of Newton and represents science holding a diagram of the Solar System.
 
Bronze Medallion of Isaac Newton by John Croker (1670 - 1741). dated 1726.
 
on the reverse side - FELIX . COGNOSCERE . CAVSAS.
Happy in the knowledge of causes.
Diam. 51 mm.
British Museum
______________________________________
 
 
From A Treatise of the System of the World. Isaac Newton, London: for F. Fayram, 1728.
 
____________________________________
 
 
 
The Conduitt Marble Bust of Isaac Newton
by Michael Rysbrack
With the base showing Science holding a diagram of the Solar System.
 
According to George Vertue (Note Books III), 1732 Mr Rysbrake did Sir Isaac Neton immediately after his death, from pictures or draughts - he does not mention a death mask.
 
The bust was commissioned by John Conduitt FRS (1688 - 1737).
Katherine Esdaile had claimed that the bust was by Roubiliac but she was unaware of the signed  version of the bust at Trinity College Cambridge.
 
This mistake was repeated by David Bindman and by Malcolm Baker in Roubiliac and the Eighteenth Century Monument. pub by Yale 1995.
 
I had pointed out this mistake to Malcolm Baker sometime in 2000 but he goes on to repeat the assertion in The Marble Index published by Yale in 2015
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
A very fine plaster version of the Rysbrack bust of Isaac Newton.
sold at Christie's Lot 105 - 5th December 2013.
59.7 cms
 
The catalogue suggests that it is the same as the version in the British Museum but even a cursory glance tells us that it is a much finer cast. Unfortunately there is not a photograph of the back.
 
 
Government Art Collection attrib. to Michael Rysbrack
Perhaps a 19th century copy.
 
height: 72.50 cm, width: 56.00 cm
Bought Bruton Gallery 1982
 
 
 
Isaac Newton
Michael Rysbrack
Plaster - it has been mistaken for terracotta in the past.
Trinity of  College, Cambridge
____________________________________
 
Plaster portrait bust of Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) after Michael Rysbrack (1694-1770), slightly to right wearing a jacket with three buttonholes and an elaborate fold over his right shoulder over an open shirt.
 
Plaster portrait bust of Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) after Michael Rysbrack (1694-1770), slightly to right wearing a jacket with three buttonholes and an elaborate fold over his right shoulder over an open shirt.
 
 
Plaster portrait bust of Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) after Michael Rysbrack (1694-1770), slightly to right wearing a jacket with three buttonholes and an elaborate fold over his right shoulder over an open shirt.
 
Plaster portrait bust of Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) after Michael Rysbrack (1694-1770), slightly to right wearing a jacket with three buttonholes and an elaborate fold over his right shoulder over an open shirt.
 
Plaster portrait bust of Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) after Michael Rysbrack (1694-1770), slightly to right wearing a jacket with three buttonholes and an elaborate fold over his right shoulder over an open shirt.
 
 
 
 
Plaster portrait bust of Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) after Michael Rysbrack (1694-1770), slightly to right wearing a jacket with three buttonholes and an elaborate fold over his right shoulder over an open shirt.
Isaac Newton
Plaster Cast
After Michael Rysbrack.
Height 574mm x width 528 mm x depth 230 mm.

British Museum
 

Text Below from British Museum Website
On the basis of photographs Dr Katherine Eustace does not believe that this bust is by Rysbrack; a terracotta bust by him in Trinity College, Cambridge, dated 1739 appears to be the source for the Museum plaster.Dawson 1999.
Displayed: c. 1756 'A busto of Sr. Isaac Newton in plaister of Paris [with Dr. Mortimer]', recorded in Sloane Catalogue, no. 1985 (kept in the MLA Dept); 1817, removed from Mr Baber's department to over the bookcases in the Print Room (letter from J. T.Smith, 17 November 1817, P&D Dept Archive); 1847, possibly still in the Print Room as one of the 'Clays or Casts: a Large portion of them by Roubiliac' in Sir Henry Ellis's memorandum of 3 June 1847 (BM Central Archive Officers' Reports); 1881, probably still in the Print Room;(1) 1960, Dept of British and Medieval Antiquities (MLA dept record).
 
________________________________
 
Life size stone bust of Isaac Newton
Michael Rysbrack.
Circa 1729/ 30
Made for the Temple of Fame at Stowe designed by Gibbs
Moved to the Temple of Worthies, at Stowe in 1733.
 
__________________________________________________________
 
Design for the Monument of Isaac Newton
in Westminster Abbey.
by Michael Rysbrack
Designed and signed by William Kent
297 x 133 mm.
 
Victoria and Albert Museum
_______________
 
Monument to Sir Isaac Newton, in Westminster Abbey, London; pyramidal structure with from top to bottom, an eight-pointed star, a female figure (Urania ?) with a sceptre in her hand, reclining on a globe, Sir Isaac reclining on a sarcophagus, his r arm resting on a pile of books, his l hand pointing to a scroll held by two cherubs, the sarcophagus decorated with a panel showing putti engaged in scientific experiments, and on the plinth of the monument, an inscription tablet Pen and brown ink, with brown wash
The Monument to Isaac Neton
Designed by William Kent
this drawing by Michael Rysbrack
340 x 175 mm.
© The Trustees of the British Museum.
Monument to Sir Isaac Newton, in Westminster Abbey, London; pyramidal structure with from top to bottom, an eight-pointed star, a female figure (Urania ?) with a sceptre in her hand, reclining on a globe, Sir Isaac reclining on a sarcophagus, his right arm resting on a pile of books, his left hand pointing to a scroll held by two cherubs, the sarcophagus decorated with a panel showing putti engaged in scientific experiments, and on the plinth of the monument, an inscription tablet with Newton's name; illustration to Vol I, p.209 of an unidentified publication.  c.1731  Etching and engraving
 
Engraving of the Kent Rysbrack Monument to Isaac Newton
From an unidentified book (Published after 1731).
218 x 175 mm.
© The Trustees of the British Museum
 
 
Terracotta Model of a reclining Isaac Newton by Michael Rysbrack
for the Monument in Westminster Abbey
Designed by William Kent
c. 1729.
36 x 53 x 23 cms.
Provenance
Rysbrack's retirement sale of 24/25 January 1766, Langford's Covent Garden. First day sale, lot 42: 'Two ditto (figures) a sketch of Sir Isaac Newton, and a Bishop' in a section headed 'MODELS', which seems to mean 3 dimensional models, though not specified as terracotta.
Illustrated in a photograph of the Museum at Badger Hall, Shropshire, 1888 (National Monuments Record BB74/2928).
Previoulsy on loan to the Museum by Dr. Hildburgh F.S.A. from 7 October 1945, and subsequently given by him to the Museum as a New Year gift in 1938.
 
The V & A say -
Commissioned by John Conduitt (the husband of Newton's niece), such as this were already being collected in the eighteenth century, and in the 1770s some of Rysbrack's models for monuments in Westminster Abbey were advertised as "ideal for any library or grotto."
 
 
 
Old photograph.
 
"H. S. E. ISAACUS NEWTON Eques Auratus, / Qui, animi vi prope divinâ, / Planetarum Motus, Figuras, / Cometarum semitas, Oceanique Aestus. Suâ Mathesi facem praeferente / Primus demonstravit: / Radiorum Lucis dissimilitudines, / Colorumque inde nascentium proprietates, / Quas nemo antea vel suspicatus erat, pervestigavit. / Naturae, Antiquitatis, S. Scripturae, / Sedulus, sagax, fidus Interpres / Dei O. M. Majestatem Philosophiâ asseruit, / Evangelij Simplicitatem Moribus expressit. / Sibi gratulentur Mortales, / Tale tantumque exstitisse / HUMANI GENERIS DECUS. / NAT. XXV DEC. A.D. MDCXLII. OBIIT. XX. MAR. MDCCXXVI"
This can be translated as follows:
"Here is buried Isaac Newton, Knight, who by a strength of mind almost divine, and mathematical principles peculiarly his own, explored the course and figures of the planets, the paths of comets, the tides of the sea, the dissimilarities in rays of light, and, what no other scholar has previously imagined, the properties of the colours thus produced. Diligent, sagacious and faithful, in his expositions of nature, antiquity and the holy Scriptures, he vindicated by his philosophy the majesty of God mighty and good, and expressed the simplicity of the Gospel in his manners. Mortals rejoice that there has existed such and so great an ornament of the human race! He was born on 25th December 1642, and died on 20th March 1726".
 
Aquatint by A. Pugin and T. Rowlandson.
Welcome Library
The monument originally stood out against the flat front of the choir screen, but was enclosed within the present decorative arch when Edward Blore re-modelled the screen in 1834.
_______________________________________
 
Photography by Carlos Dorce (it was permitted by one of the guards)
 
 
Photography by Carlos Dorce (it was permitted by one of the guards)
 
Photography by Carlos Dorce (it was permitted by one of the guards)
 
Photographs Courtesy -
 
 
 
This photograph courtesy -
 
Portrait of Sir Isaac Newton; medallion bust in profile to the right, with short hair, wearing  cloak, inscribed around portrait 'PRAECLARISSIMUS ISAACUS NEWTON EQUES';the medallion irradiating, set within starry sky, with four allegorical figures resting on clouds, two at the top, one watching the other pointing a compass to a diagram, with two putti; below a woman with globe under arm holding telescope, the other holding scales, and pointing to a solar system; between them a putto holding scroll inscribed 'ECCE PHILOSOPHORUM PRINCEPS'; later state with altered publication details.  1732  Engraving
 
 
Isaac Newton Bust
Engraved by George Bickham
352 x 251 mm.
1732.
British Museum.
 
 
 
Design for the Monument of Sir Isaac Newton
by Sebastiano Ricci
c.1728.
 
40.3 x 32.7 cm (sheet of paper).
 
 
Marco Ricci
dated 1728.
31.5 x 45.5 cms.
Gouache
 
Consul Joseph Smith at Venice, was Seb. Ricci's patron, and published at least two books connected with his work via the Pasquali Press. Smith also commissioned a gouache of the same subject by Marco Ricci (RCIN 400585) which is dated 1728. The monument is similar to the tomb by the sculptor Michael Rysbrack to the designs of William Kent in Westminster Abbey that was not completed until 1731.
 
Smith was in contact with John Conduitt, husband of Newton's niece, who commissioned the Rysbrack tomb and it is possible that he obtained preliminary sketches from him that he passed on to the Riccis.
 


Smith was also well aware of the project embarked upon by the impresario and art dealer Owen McSwinny for a series of twenty-four allegorical tombs in celebration of great English men since the Revolution of 1688.
 
Newton's study of optics which was of interest to painters, and his clarity of thought linked him to the contemporary philosopher John Locke. McSwinny's project was launched from Smith's house in Venice with Lord March in the 1720s.
 
It should be noted that the conception of this monument is not that far from the completed Westminster Abbey Monument by Michael Rysbrack in c 1732 which might suggest that Rysbrack was aware of it.
 
This entry was adapted from the Royal Collection website.
 
31.8 x 41.5 cms. approx.
 
- Both the Ricci Images courtesy -
 
 
 
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Portrait of Sir Isaac Newton; three-quarter length, seated in armchair, to the right, wearing knee-length coat and neck scarf, with shoulder length white hair, a column in background; after Vanderbank; frontispiece to his 'Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica' (3rd ed. 1726).  Engraving


Isaac Newton, aged 83.
Portrait by Vanderbank.
Engraved by George Vertue, 1725.
Frontispiece to 'Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica' (3rd ed. 1726).
215 x 150 mm.
© The Trustees of the British Museum.
 
1735  William Hogarth  A Performance of the Indian Emperor, Enfants jouant la comedie chez Kohn Conduitt  Huile sur Toile  80x146 cm  Collection particuliere
 
Hogarth The Performance of the Indian Emperor
____________________________________
 
 
 
Lead Bust of Isaac Newton attributed to John Cheere.
27.9 x 17.8 x 8.3 cm.
Yale Centre for British Art
 
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Death Mask of Isaac Newton
Huntington Library, California.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Death Mask
Royal Society.
 
_____________________________
 
 
 
Sir Isaac Newton, by John Faber Jr, after  John Vanderbank, circa 1726 - NPG D27329 - © National Portrait Gallery, London
 
Sir Isaac Newton
Engraving by John Faber after John Vanderbank
dated 1726.
351 mm x 255 mm - plate size.
© National Portrait Gallery, London
_______________________
 
 
Isaac Newton after James Thornhill
Mezzotint by John Smith

Sir Isaac Newton, by George Vertue, after  John Vanderbank, 1726 (1725) - NPG D18163 - © National Portrait Gallery, London



Isaac Newton
Engraving by George Vertue
After John Vanderbank
1726
240 mm x 183 mm paper size.
© National Portrait Gallery, London.

__________________________________

 
 
126.7 x 132.1 cm
Notes from Christie's Catalogue
Provenance - Robert More F.R.S. M.P. (1703-1780), and by descent at Linley Hall, Shropshire, to the present owner.
 
Milo Keynes, who dates the picture to 1726 (op. cit., p. 33), considers this to be the prime version of the portrait that exists in a number of versions, including those in the National Portrait Gallery, London, Trinity College, Cambridge, and Babson College, Massachusetts. John Ingamells (op. cit., p. 191), however, considers it likely that all were painted posthumously and derive from a bust-length portrait, dated 1726, by Seeman which is also preserved in the collection of Trinity College, Cambridge. Robert More, whilst not a direct contemporary of Newton, was also a fellow of the Royal Society (elected 1730) and a renowned bibliophile. More himself, whilst a young man, was also painted by Seeman and that portrait remains in the collection of the present vendor.